Cumulus Field Formulas

This is pretty obscure stuff – I’m putting it here so I can refer to it later down the track when I’ve completely forgotten what I did.

In Canto Cumulus, you can set the value of a field using a formula. The syntax of the formulas is not my friend.

I wanted to set a String List to be one of three values depending on a value in two different boolean fields.

If boolean value A was checked, then I wanted to use the first string list value. If neither A nor B was checked I wanted to use the second string list value and if only B was checked, I wanted to use the third string list value. There were no records in the database with A & B both checked.

The forumla that ended up working for me was:

(fieldValue("Boolean A") == True ) ? 1 : (fieldValue("Boolean b") == True ) ? 3 : 2

With String Lists, the value of the field is actually 1-based number that references the string list entry.

You can’t match against string list fields with the value in the string. I wasted an hour or so trying this – I also wanted to set another boolean if a string list was set to a value, this ended up doing it:

(fieldValue("String List") == "1") ? True : False

Configure L2TP VPN Server on Ubiquity EdgeRouter Lite

As Apple have removed PPTP VPN support from macOS Sierra (10.12 and iOS 10) I’m changing clients over to L2TP over IPSec VPNs instead. Once the VPN server is configured, there’s not much difference to configuring it at the client end over PPTP, the main difference is that you need two passwords – one for the user and one for the shared secret (or pre-shared key).

Fortunately Ubiquity have a pretty decent writeup on how to configure L2TP VPN on an EdgeMax device, such as the EdgeRouter Lite.

Unfortunately they leave out a few key steps on configuring the IPSec side of things – if you already have a site-to-site IPSec VPN then these settings will already be configured and you don’t need to worry. If you don’t however you’ll also need to enter the following three commands into the router before you commit the changes:

set vpn ipsec ipsec-interfaces interface eth0
set vpn ipsec nat-traversal enable
set vpn ipsec nat-networks allowed-network

Once you’ve entered them in, you can commit and save and your VPN endpoint should be working.

Get system specs on an HP Server

Correct me if I’m wrong, but Windows doesn’t really have anything quite like the System Information app on macOS.

If you’ve got an HP server however, you can get some fairly detailed information about the configuration of the server as it shipped from HP without needing to inspect it physically.

First, find the serial number of the machine. Open up a CMD window and enter the following:

wmic bios get serialnumber

This will return something like


Take this serial number and enter it into the HP PartSurfer website at

From this, you should be able to get at least the model number, CPU type and base RAM specifications.

Find (and delete) duplicate files

I’ve had issues in the past where a Kerio Connect mail server talking to Apple Mail can somehow end up duplicating hundreds or even thousands of emails in mailboxes. I never got to the bottom of what was causing it, but the symptoms were that people would see their mailbox sizes grow to crazy sizes and there would be many, many duplicates of many emails in these folders.

When the issue was occurring more frequently, I was using some command-line tools to clean them up, but having not encountered it in the wild again now for more than a year, I’ve totally forgotten which tools I used and how I invoked them.

In migrating a client’s email to Office 365 recently, one user had a massive mailbox, with one folder alone having over 35 GB of email in it. In searching for the tools I previously used to clean it up, I came across dupeGuru – an OS X GUI application that finds identical files and can trash them.

I haven’t been able to run it head-to-head against whatever I used to use (I think it was fslint but it may have been dupes, or it may have been something else altogether) but whatever, I only need to clean a couple of folders as a one-off task.

Anyway, dupeGuru seems to do the task and runs in a reasonable amount of time, so if you’re looking for an easy to use utility to find and nuke identical files, give it a spin.

Easily create and install Launch Daemons on macOS or OS X

I recently needed to have a script execute on a daily basis – previously this would have been a task for cron however it’s been deprecated (yet still all there) in macOS since something like 10.4.

The accepted way to do it now is via a Launch Daemon. Simple in theory, but easier said than done. It’s far easier to edit a single line in a crontab entry (even if you have to look up the unique syntax of the crontab) than it is to create a Launch Daemon xml .plist file.

Fortunately, Nathan Witmer has created Launched – a web-based tool to create launchd plist files.

From here it was easy – I created my script as per normal and put it in /usr/local/bin

I made up a name for my daemon, set the command to /usr/local/bin/ and configured it to run every day at 8pm (ironically, using the cron syntax to schedule it).

After hitting the Create .plist button, I was given my entire plist to copy and paste, as well as a couple of snippets to install the plist via using curl to get it from Launched, copying it to /Library/LaunchDaemons and using launchctl to load it.

Find Large Items in Office 365 Mailboxes

$UserCredential = Get-Credential

$Session = New-PSSession -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Exchange -ConnectionUri\
-Credential $UserCredential -Authentication Basic -AllowRedirection

Import-PSSession $Session

Get-MailboxFolderStatistics -Identity [email protected] -IncludeAnalysis -FolderScope All\ | Select-Object Name,FolderPath,ItemsInFolder,FolderSize,TopSubject,TopSubjectSize,TopSubjectCount,TopSubjectPath | Out-file C:\Users\%username%\Desktop\UserMailboxResults.txt


Recursively Propagate Permissions on a Synology NAS with synoacltool

Synology DSM lets you do some pretty complex things with permissions on files and folders, however occasionally things can get a bit mixed up and it’s difficult to see what’s happening and even more difficult to recover from it.

Whilst you can go into the DSM web interface and check the permissions at the top level of each share point in Control Panel > Shared Folder, it’s difficult to see what’s going on below this.

To dig deeper we need to get into the command-line, so you first have to enable ssh access. Go into Control Panel > Terminal & SNMP and Enable SSH service

You can now ssh into the Synology as an admin user (provided your firewall rules on the NAS allow it)

I found that if you modify the permissions on a file or folder with chmod then this seems to wipe out the ACL information. Never mind, there’s another utility called synoacltool that lets you modify ACLs. Unfortunately however synoacltool doesn’t have a switch to operate recursively.

Unix find to the rescue!

What I was able to do however was use find to run it on each and every file and folder in a given folder – this likely isn’t the most efficient way to do it, but you (hopefully) don’t need to do this too often anyway…

First, wipe out the ACLs and set the unix permissions with chmod

chmod -R a+rwX /volume1/Share\ Point

Set the permissions on your share point in DSM and check it in the terminal

ls -ale /volume1/Share\ Point

I got this far, however when I checked the permissions on the files and folders inside Share Point they still had plain ol’ unix permissions and no acls

cd /volume1/Share\ Point

ls -ale

no ACLs. Let’s get them happening.

find . -execdir synoacltool -copy /volume1/Share\ Point {} \;

What this does is find each file and folder and then run the exec command on the given file or folder – so it copies the ACL from our top-level folder onto every single file and folder in the Share Point folder.

There’s quite a lot of overhead in doing it this way, but hopefully you only need to do this once and then the permissions will work…

Higher Quality options to Reduce PDF File Size in on macOS / OS X

Apple’s built-in Preview app has long had a way that you can reduce the size of a PDF by recompressing and downsampling the images in the PDF.

Simply open a PDF in Preview and go to File > Export and then for Quartz Filter select Reduce File Size.

Whilst this generally provides very good savings in terms of file size, it is at the expense of the image quality in the PDFs.

Digging a bit deeper into how this is configured, it turns out that the default Quartz Filters are saved in /System/Library/Filters. Knowing that just about everything inside of /System is now off-limits, I created a new folder in /Library called Filters and put some customised versions of the filters in there instead.

After relaunching Preview, my new filters were there to be selected.

Click to download a copy of my quartz filters. It’s pretty self explanatory what they do from their name.

Disable Azure AD users from having to set up a PIN on Windows 10

This information is condensed from Håvard Siegel Haukeberg’s blog over at

You need to log in as the actual admin user for the domain, you can’t do this through a partner account with delegated administration.

First up, go to the Azure management portal:

  2. Go to Active Directory
  3. Select your Domain
  4. Select Applications
  5. Select Microsoft Intune
  6. Select Configure
  7. Under manage devices for these users, select All and click Save.

Next, go to Intune

  2. Go to: Admin > Mobile Device Management > Windows > Passport for Work.
  3. Select: Deactivate Passport for Work on registered devices


Give an Azure AD user Local Administrator user privileges on Windows 10

When you join a Windows 10 machine to Azure AD, the user account you use to join to the domain is automatically given local administrator permissions to the machine.

If you noodle around in the Azure management portal, there doesn’t seem to be an easy way to give additional users local administrator permissions on the same machine.

A client of mine is running some practice management software that, as it turns out, requires all users to have local administrator privileges. Yes, I know.

Fortunately there’s an easy to elevate a local user’s account to give them administrator permissions.

Launch a CMD shell with Administrator privileges and type in:

net localgroup Administrators AzureAD\UserName /add

where UserName is their first and last names as specified in Azure; e.g. mine would be KaiHowells